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 The enamel is the outer layer of your tooth, it is the whitish surface that you can see and that protects your teeth from decay.  It is composed of 96% mineral and the rest is water and organic material, creating a very tough outer shell for your teeth.  The enamel on your tooth is thickest at the top, where most of the damage can occur, and thinner towards the bottom.   

When the enamel is damaged the dentin underneath is exposed, so causing problems with cavities and increased tooth sensitivity